The rivers are considered as playing a very important role in hydrological cycle. The river is resulting from joining number of streams created by overland as well as hill land flow. The reservoirs are constructed across the rivers as a storage projects or run of river projects. The reservoir engineering has presented specific desire to withstand the powers brought about by the river streams during heavy precipitation. The staggering flood circumstances are being deflected because of dams and related supplies thereof. The role of information technology in early warning systems has specific importance in early river flood warning, monitoring, mitigation and management. The flood alleviation and checking strategies alongside the job of the local area based NGOs and public specialists was stressed. For sustainable development of any region, efficient and proper utilization of available water resources has crucial importance. Reservoir storage capacity greatly affected by the amount of sediment deposition in the reservoir over time. The storage capacity of the any irrigation project and in turn its operational efficiency is enhanced by efficient sediment management. Sustainable ecosystem management is essential to overcome several obstacles in the judicious management of natural resources to satisfy the demand from different sectors. Reservoir engineering and water resource engineering have given us an amazing information base to realize the constructions worked across the different river basins. Recent advanced technologies such as remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS). Artificial Intelligence can be utilized in mapping, planning and management of water resources. With the efficient management of the natural resources, it is also important to control the pollution of natural resources. The rivers or other natural resources are mainly polluted by the presence of different variety of algae, excess amount of nitrogen, phosphorus molecules in the water bodies. There are various food chains, which are present in the aquatic environment, that are destroyed by the polluted water bodies. This is enough to disturb the ecological balance. We can utilize a few planning methods in researching the real states of the nearby water bodies. It is significant to realize the toxin load at all the sections of the stream. Therefore, it is necessary investigate and control the water pollution in the natural water bodies like, rivers, reservoirs, ponds for better ecological balance.