Climate is considered as an averaged value of weather parameters for thirty years. This book discusses the effect of climate change on the crop plants. The basic concepts encircling the climate change were discussed. The adaptation of plants against the extreme climate patterns were explained in this book. The climate resilient agricultural practices were explained. Some of the agriculturally important microbes were explained in detail. The crop productivity is being affected by the climate change patterns. Advanced techniques like genomics and breeding in relation to the climate change impacts were discussed. The effect of climate change on various levels of biodiversity was emphasized. The adaptation of agriculture against the climate change abnormalities were discussed in detail.